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April 1, 1957 



FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 



REPORT 



PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 

DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

Division of Fish and Wildlife 



Hon. Clare E. Mapledoram 
Minister 



F. A. MacDougall 
Deputy Minister 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Private Shooting Grounds - Paradise Lost or Paradise 
Regained? - by C. H. D. Clarke 



Page 



A Wetland Management Program for Wildlife in Southern 

Ontario. - by Antoon deVos 6 

Forest Wildlife Management. - by Clyde P. Patton 10 

Statistics and Comments on the Pelee Island Pheasant 

Shoot - 1956. - by L. J. Stock 14 

Report on Age and Sex of Ruffed Grouse, Swastika 

District, 1956. - by R. C. Johanson 13 

Tweed District Deer, 1955. - by P. A. Thompson 19 

Deer Mortality in the Lake Erie District, 1956. 

- compiled by L. J. Stock 2$ 

Winter Live Trapping, Chapleau Game Preserve, 1957. 

- by V. Crichton 34 

Variation in Survival Rate of the Western Deer Herd. 

- by R. Boultbee 37 

Hybrids of Salvelinus. - by F. E. J. Fry 44 

Some Age and Growth Records of Ontario Sturgeon 

( Acipenser fulvescens ) . - by 0. E. Devitt 46 

A Report of Coarse Fish Removal at Spring Valley Mill ' 

Pond, Waterloo County. - by J. F. Gage 49 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA-DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



- 1 _ 

PRIVATE SHOOTING GROUNDS 

PARADISE LOST OR PARADISE REGAINED? 

by 
C. H. D. Clarke 



To show that private game preserves are no modern growth our 
footnotes (1) (2) (3) quote at length from the great literature of 
mankind three passages to show how old they are and how near to the 
core of human ambition. The very word "paradise" originally 



(1) 



(2) 



-- I'ffecTrt. r«< Te vuvcvtu 
<roL — 

Xencphorc, Cyhopc^dia., hS.Jvj 

Vivaria eorum ceterarumque 
silvestrium primus togati 
generis Fulvius Lippinusg is 
in Tarquiniensi feras pascer e 
instituits nee diu initatores 
defuere L. Lucullus et Q. 
Hortensius. 
Pliny, Hist. Nat., 8 



(3) Mephistopheles - 

Versteht sichS Biete nur, das 
fehlt dir nie. 

Narr - 

Und Schloss mit Wald und 
Jagd und Fishbach ? 

Meph.- 

TraunS Ich mochte dich 
gestrengen Herrn wohl schaun S 

Narr - 

Heut Abend wieg v ich mich 
in 6-rundbesita ! 

Meph. - 



Wer 


zweifelt 


noch 


an 


unsres 


Narr 


en 


Witz! 






Faust. B 



Free Translation 

What's more, I f ll give you the 
game now in my preserves 
(paradises) . 

Fulvius Lippinus was the first 
gentleman to set up preserves of 
wild boars and the like; he 
instituted game-keeping in 
Tarquinia, nor were imitators L. 
Lucullus and Q. Hortensius, long 
in following. 



Mephistopheles - 

As you wish! Just ask, you ? ll 
surely receive. 

Fool - 

A castle, with a deer forest, 
shooting, and a trout stream? 

Meph.- 

DoneJ I can set you up as a real 
lord J 

Fool - 

Tonight I'll sleep on my estate! 



Meph. - 

Who says our fool has no sense I 



- 2 - 



meant a private hunting ground. Let the Indian have his communal 
Happy Hunting Grounds I — the white man's idea was more specific. 
Mephistopheles T praise of the fool who chose a private hunting and 
fishing ground when he might have had anything in the world was 
surely prompted by the plight of those supposedly smarter who had 
chosen barren wealth and knew not what to do with it, of one of 
whom Faust scornfully remarks " Erst haben wir ihn reich gemacht , 
nun sollen wir ihn amusieren". 



(4) First we made him rich, now we have to amuse him. 

How many in the Fish and Game Associations, in spite of 
outcry and prejudice, would turn down a free trip to the King 
Ranch or the Winous Point Club, even if they had to bring their 
own cartridges? Do not their ears prick up when they hear such 
magic names as Stuttgart, (Ark.) or Thomasville (Ga.), while their 
hair stands up with horror when some nosey outdoor columnist lets 
slip the secret of limit bags in an obscure public place close to 
home? Our outlook is no different from that of the ancient Greeks 
who turned the Persian name for a private hunting ground (paradise) 
into a synonym of heaven, or the Hebrews who used it for the 
Garden of Eden. 

Only when paradise is lost do we seem to discover that 
we shared out title to it with others who could make it into a 
desert, or that we really had no title at all. It happens often 
enough today that professional wildlifers need to do some deep 
and clear thinking if they are not to add to the general confusion. 

It ought to be self evident that hunting and fishing are 
not exceptions to the rule that there can be no reaping without 
sowing. Idle prattling about navigable waters, and game belonging 
to the people is no help. All it can do in the long run is to 
make game appear as a liability on the land, a crop produced merely 
to attract trespassers. If we are to have game on private lands 
the landowner must profit from it. If we accept the thesis that 
the average farmer cannot produce game worth selling, we are writing 
off most of our accessible private lands and leaving the hunter 
only such productive lands as are rented for him to share with the 
throng, or by him for his own use. 

In Europe shooting rights are a marketable asset of all 
rural lands. In England a man once expected to pay £100 ($300) a 
year for the "rough shooting" on about 1,000 acres (5), 

(5) Lynn - Allen, Esmond - 1955. The cost to the syndicate. 
The Field, v. 206, no. 5369, December 1, 1955, p. 1,050. 



- 3 - 

but we are told that the cost is much higher now, especially in 
accessible areas. Another writer (6) gives 3 to 6 pence per acre 

(6) Day, J. Wentworth - 1956 - Ways to cheaper shooting. 

Country Life, v. 120, no. 3118, October 13, 1956, pp. £33-9. 



as the pre-war cost of rough shooting and says that it has gone 
up to as much as 5 shillings now, or ten times. The term "rough 
shooting" means that there is no great population of game, such as 
pheasant, grouse, partridge or roe, and no marsh worth mention. 
There will be no coverts especially planted to encourage game. 
What there will be for sure is a substantial crop of wood pigeons 
and, formerly, rabbits, both of which are considered pests to be 
kept down as much as possible, but are also highly favoured as 
food. There will also be a few chances a year at such birds as 
grouse, pheasant or partridge, rarely all three, and never many 
to shoot, plus a few hares and possibly a chance or two at duck, 
snipe or woodcock, all depending on the location. It works out 
generally to something under a dollar a head for game shot, at the 
Lynn-Allen evaluation of £100 per 1,000 acres, and more, but not 
necesarily two and a half times as much on Day's figure of £250 
per 1,000 acres. Obviously there are wide variations in the cost 
and quality of rough shooting and these figures are probably not 
arrived at by any careful sampling, but they show all too well that 
good sport costs money and nothing is free. An average American 
who spends the same amount on a hunting trip will have less time 
in the field, and may get much less game. 

Costs rise sharply where grouse moors, partridge manors, 
pheasant shoots, deer stalking grounds, or marshes are concerned. 
Years ago grouse moors were rented at about $>5« per bird, and 
the rental was only the beginning. Grouse must cost at least $10. 
each to shoot now. Recently (February 10, 1956) the editor of 
"The Shooting Times" quoted an article in "The Financial Times" 
which compared former and recent prices for shooting in syndicates. 
A syndicate is simply a group of men who rent shooting rights on 
an area for the season. We quote, prices being in pounds i 



Per Gun in Syndicate Per Season 1955 

Partridge manor (Hertfordshire) 150 

Pheasant shoot (Suffolk) 300 

Grouse moor (Yorkshire) 300 



Present Standard 
1933 of Sport 

250 Birds much fewer 

200 As pre-war 

150 Variable like all 
grouse moors. 



What is the cost per acre? According to Lynn-Allen it 
was once about five shillings per acre for pheasant shooting, 
three and sixpence for partridge, but it is now much greater in 
accessible places. He suggests that rent should be estimated by 
prospective shooters as one third of their costs, and that £400 
would be a reasonable annual rent for 1,000 acres, or over one 
dollar per acre. 



- 4 - 

This means more than one dollar per acre for rent alone 
where there is any real stand of game. On the rough shoot the 
farmer tolerates the thickets where pheasants hide, but the pigeons 
use his woods willy-nilly, and he would cheerfully see the rabbits 
exterminated. The spreading of myxomatosis has made the "rough 
shooters" sick at heart because now their rabbits are few, but 
their rents are unlikely to come down. 

Day suggests for a farm of 200 acres a stand of a few 
covies of Huns, about ten pheasants, some hares and plenty of 
rabbits before myxomatosis. He does not mention the omnipresent 
wood pigeon. The shooting rents for more than ^70, a year. A 
similar farm area in southern Ontario would be good for only three 
or four game birds, a few cottontails and squirrels, as much coon 
hunting as an average man is likely to have time for, and a chase 
on hare or fox twice a week for four months. You would have to 
throw in a good woodcock cover to put it in a class with the 
"average" English farm, but 'cock covers are not too rare and they 
can be made. At |70. it would be a good 4-2.50 per head for the 
probable kill of game, including the 'cock. There are plenty of 
places that could be made entirely comparable with a very little 
effort. 

Grouse moors are large, and have to be protected and' the 
heather managed on a burning rotation, otherwise, as in Ireland, 
grouse will be scarce. Partridges must be carefully included in 
the crop rotation, but without loss of crop income. Pheasant 
coverts are generally man-made, but they must fit into the farm 
programme. There is often rearing. For all that expense and trouble 
there are usually only a few big shooting days in a year, shared 
with many guests. In all shooting there is a constant fear of 
driving the game off the property. 

The cost per head of game is high, but it is not a bit 
higher than the cost on our public shooting areas. We have to 
include the effort of the fellow who didn't get any as well as 
that of the lucky one. In fact we may as well realize that hunting 
can never be a cheap sport. 

There may always be some game around, but for ducks, 
woodcock, snipe, pheasant, quail, turkey, ruffed grouse and Huns, 
it is possible to make coverts where none were before, and he who 
does should, and likely will, reap the benefit. It is a curious 
fact that the biggest public effort for the sportsman here is in 
waterfowl, and the biggest private shoots are waterfowl shoots. 
In upland game, where the whole procedure of management can be 
carried out privately on one piece of property, there are few 
really good private shoots on this Continent, practically all of 
them in the southern quail belt. 

In some areas private shooting has come to be associated 
with the release of pheasants ahead of the gun, to be shot down 
"fluffy-tailed", at so much a bird. There is surely no harm in 
such a practice and no prejudice to the public shooting, but the 
European technique of putting pheasants over the guns high and 



- 5 - 

fast does seem a great deal more interesting. 

We can be sure that our birds are going to cost us about 
the same amount each whatever we do. If we are going to have 
enough to go around the unit cost will not change much but the 
gross must go up and the recipients are going to have to foot the 
bill. It hardly seems right for someone else to pay. Someone 
has to make a start in production. If the conservation departments 
do it first, private imitators will arise, and vice versa. 

Here in Ontario we find that we have an enormous area 
of public land where there will always be "free" hunting, but very 
little of it is within reach of our most densely populated centres. 
For them, the problem is just the same as in the States. However, 
there is one special category of lands which stand out as potential 
private paradises. There are many municipalities so built up 
that public hunting is out of the question. It is customary now 
to prohibit all discharge of firearms in them, including large 
remaining farms. A more constructive approach would be to let these 
farms become private shooting grounds. They are already a total 
loss so far as the public is concerned, but they are often rich in 
game, and the more persons who can be withdrawn from competition 
in the adjacent tier of "open" lands the better. 

Until we have found out a little more about game economics 
let us not assume that no ordinary farmer can produce enough to 
sell. We lack the equivalent of the wood pigeons that the English 
farmer curses - and sells, but right now our rabbits are just as 
good as his. Each piece of game is worth at least what is being 
paid for it now. It might surprise us to learn how much that is. 
I well remember the European (continental) gentleman who assured 
me that our handling of the Pelee Island pheasant shoot was all 
wrong. He was sure that there were people who would pay |25 f OOO. 
a year for the shooting rights. That is, on the average, less 
than $2, a bird, or #2.50 an acre. He was a little surprised to 
learn that the throng of gunners he so despised were already paying 
the islanders as much as |7*00 an acre, not including such items 
as provincial licences. I don 9 t think he believed it, anyway. 
It is easier to figure out the value of a Pelee bird than that of 
most pieces of game harvested because the total effort is so easily 
measured, but let us not make the same mistake and underrate our 
farm game. The truth, when we have it, may prevent some of the 
best spots becoming private paradises, and yet at the same time, 
by encouraging such a development elsewhere, lead to better game 
management on all our lands. 



r 6 w 

A WETLAND MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME FOR WILDLIFE 

IN SOUTHERN ONTARIO 

by 
Antoon de Vos 



The wetlands of Southern Ontario, probably the most impor- 
tant remaining wildlife habitats, are being drained for agricultural 
purposes at an alarming rate« Unless the Government appraises 
this situation, and possibly acquires a certain percentage of these 
wetlands, serious damage to the wildlife populations of Southern 
Ontario may result. 

The problem of drainage of wetlands is not restricted to 
Ontario. Kenneth E. Black, of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
stated recently that for nearly ten years, pothole drainage has 
been considered the most serious problem facing waterfowl conserva- 
tion in the Midwest. Burton W. Rounds, another U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service biologist, stated similarly that the days of water- 
fowl hunting as we know it are numbered unless we all join together 
in an effort to save waterfowl habitat. He mentioned also that 
Iowa once had some of the finest waterfowl producing habitat, but 
that most of it has gone down the drainage ditch. 

The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service estimated that during 
the period 1945 to 1950, Minnesota's marshes in the farming region 
were being drained at the approximate rate of 3% per year. More 
recent surveys indicate a loss of 5% per year. In Racine County, 
Wisconsin, there has been a loss of 33% wetland acreage during the 
period 1934 to 1954. 

The reason for the rapid disappearance of wetlands is the 
considerable intensification of agricultural practices during 
World War II and since. 

Although certain drainage projects, such as that of Holland 
Marsh, cannot be prevented, there are others, which are unnecessary 
and often economically unwarranted. It therefore seems necessary 
that the Government undertake a survey of the wetland resources of 
Southern Ontario. The need for such a survey was also mentioned at 
the recent Water Resources Conference in London, Ontario (November, 
1955). 

What wildlife species benefit from wetland areas? The 
value to waterfowl and aquatic mammals is obvious. However, other 
wildlife such as pheasants, rabbits, woodcock, Hungarian partridge, 
raccoon and deer require such lands for cover and food, and water- 
fowl values should not be overemphasized. 

An appraisal of the value of wetlands should not be 
restricted to wildlife only. Wetlands serve an important function 
in storing excess runoff water, and aid in keeping the ground water 
at a higher level. 



- 7 - 

The value of wetlands to wildlife depends largely upon 
their type, size, and distribution. If water is present in suffi- 
cient depth, either seasonally or annually, wetlands may have 
waterfowl and aquatic mammal values. Such areas may serve as breed- 
ing areas for waterfowl, or as concentration points during migration, 
or both. They may also harbour upland game on their edges. 

Wetland areas lacking surface water are important to 
upland game and are used primarily for escape and roosting cover, 
particularly during the winter. Many types of wetlands are valuable 
to non-hunted species, such as song birds. 

What are wetlands and how can they be classified? A 
wetland is an area of land containing undeveloped organic soils of 
varying depths in which the water table is at, near, or above the 
land surface. 

There is need for an intensive wetland survey, since even 
small areas are important for wildlife management. In Wisconsin, 
where such a detailed survey was carried out, the following wetland 
types are recognizeds 

1) farm ponds or stock watering areas, 

2) fresh meadows (soggy ground or seasonally flooded areas), 

3) shallow marshes (water present during most of the growing 
season, 

4) deep marshes, 

5) timbered swamps, 

6) bogs. 

Emergent vegetation is used as the key to placing a 
wetland in the appropriate category. This is deemed necessary to 
circumvent the conditions found in areas where varying water levels 
due either to prolonged rainfall or lack of it complicated the 
classification process. 

The general procedure used in conducting intensive wetland 
surveys is, first of all, to study aerial photographs. Apparent 
wetland areas on the photographs are outlined. Subsequently, these 
maps are taken into the field. Here the boundaries of each wetland 
parcel are outlined on the map. Probably the most important 
information secured on each area is wether it is drainable, or not 
feasibly drainable. This is based on visual inspection to determine 
whether gravitational drainage by open ditching and/or tiling is 
feasible. The degree of grazing of each area is also recorded. 

Upon completion of field checking of a township, the 
field data are tabulated and analyzed. Where available, soil 
capability classifications are added and a priority rating is 
applied, basod on drainability, capability, location and other 
factors. A map of each township is prepared giving the location 
of all existing wetlands, lakes, streams, and cities. It was found 
during the Wisconsin survey that the amount of manpower required 
to survey an average township varies with the numbers and types 
of wetlands involved. On the average each township has required 
approximately seven man-days of field work, and three man-days of 
office work. 



- g - 

In Wisconsin, wetlands were classified in three categories, 
including areas from; 

1) one-quarter acre to fifteen acres, where management is limited 
to leaving the areas undisturbed and grazing is controlled, 

2) sixteen acres to approximately six hundred and forty acres, 
where management generally is limited only by the type of 
wetland involved, and 

3) 6/+.0 acres or more, where management is practically unlimited. 

What are the objectives we aim at in wetland surveys? 
The following can be listed; 

1) to determine the distribution, degree of grazing, as well as 
the types and amounts of existing wetlands, 

2) to demonstrate loss of wetlands, largely through drainage, 
during the past 20 to 50 years, 

3) the use of the results of the inventory to further delineate 
the wildlife values of remaining wetlands and to develop an 
objective preservation and management programme for wildlife. 

At present there are not sufficient research data avail- 
able to see exactly the impetus of drainage on wildlife. However, 
some studies have been made. The recent study of the Fish and 
Wildlife Service in a restricted area in Iowa indicated that the 
most important factor influencing duck production in that area was 
the number of water areas available to breeding birds in the spring. 
Drainage of small potholes in that area was definitely detrimental 
to the waterfowl production. The value of wetlands to the survival 
of pheasants during the winter is well known. 

After an intensive wetland survey has been conducted, 
the problem of acquisition of suitable areas will arise. Acquisi- 
tion depends upon the public need for an area and the total value 
of the area to wildlife as a breeding and concentration unit. 
Acquisition by the government is not always advisable or even the 
best approach. The larger wetlands preferably should be in public 
hands. However, the purchase of numerous, widely scattered small 
parcels of wetlands may be costly and complex. In that case lease, 
preferably on a long-term basis, might be a suitable approach. It 
is temporarily less expensive, it does not tie up large amounts of 
money, and it does not affect the local tax base. However, in 
many cases leases are lost for various reasons, and leasing and 
administrative costs may be high over a number of years, and manage- 
ment opportunities are limited. 

In addition to direct purchase and lease, incentives 
which result in the adoption of total land-use practices may help 
to save wetlands of many types and sizes. Part of the profits 
from wetlands might be returned to the local community; this might 
partly replace tax losses. 

Another approach to save wetlands is to encourage civic 
groups and communities to maintain a wetlands area of reasonable 
size for wildlife as their contribution to posterity. Reduction of 
taxes on wetlands reserved for wildlife is also a possibility. 



- 9 - 

In the State of Minnesota efforts have been made during 
recent years to improve the habitat of wetlands, 12,56*1 lineal 
feet of level ditches and 77 nesting islands were constructed by- 
dragline to improve three shallow marshes at a cost of 16 to 
19 cents per cubic yard. Another method of improving aquatic 
habitat is the construction of carp barriers on certain watercourses. 
Minnesota is spending $40,000. per year to survey waterfowl and 
muskrat habitat and to make drainage investigations. This project 
has surveyed over 1,300 water areas totalling 300,000 acres. 

Since the economics of land use make drainage a profit- 
able venture, drainage appears inevitable and will likely continue 
in an accelerating fashion in Southern Ontario. For this reason, 
if we want to save a certain amount of suitable wetlands, immediate 
action should be taken. 



- 10 - 



FOREST WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 

by 
Clyde P, Patton, Executive Director 
North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission 

Presented at a Meeting of U. S. Forest Service Personnel 

With International Association of Game, Fish and 

Conservation Commissioners, December k» 1956 

Washington, D*C. 



On forest lands, measures employed in wildlife habitat 
maintenance and improvement are heavily influenced by the extent of 
the farmers ? or foresters' appreciation of wildlife values. 

We do not propose to discuss wildlife values here* All of 
us are familiar with the pictorial presentation of these values 
recently published by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service from data 
collected in the Crossley National Survey of Hunting and Fishing. 
Wildlife values are clearly substantial. They compare favorably, 
public interest-wise, with forest values. The recent emphasis on 
them serves as an admonishment to all to fully appreciate the 
importance of planning and employing an effective, productive wildlife 
habitat improvement program on forest lands. Unless all concerned, 
wildlife managers, foresters, and extension specialists alike, have 
a proper appreciation of the actual value of wildlife, the activation 
of a really effective program of wildlife management will be slow, 
halting, and beset with frustration. 

It is not enough that those in charge of national and 
state programs be aware of wildlife values. If such awareness and 
appreciation are not passed down to the level of the farm worker, 
the district ranger, and the logger, all the good intentions and 
fine programs of cooperation will be fruitless. With proper wildlife 
interest on the local level - the labor foremen and the supervisors 
- a constructive program of management can be most effectively 
activated. 

We often have heard from wildlife managers and foresters 
about "overpopulation" of our deer ranges. "Underdevelopment" of 
range capacity is seldom mentioned, but is equally important. It 
appears, sometimes, that the chief emphasis is on increasing the 
kill to prevent malnutrition starvation, disease, and death due to 
lack of food. There are cases where indifference to wildlife has 
resulted in forest cutting practices which have eliminated food 
trees, shrubs, and vines, and dropped game carrying capacity to 
dangerously low levels. With these circumstances and practices 
prevailing, continued emphasis on increased kill to keep capacity 
and population in balance will inevitably lead to wildlife extermina- 
tion. A balance between wildlife populations and available food 
and cover is essential, but it should be based on the maintenance 
of carrying capacity at the highest possible level. The only satis- 
factory balance is one achieved by forestry practices which give 



- 11 - 

constant attention to maximum wildlife habitat development on the 
one hand and adequate annual wildlife harvest on the other. 

Too often, wildlife has been considered only as a forest 
by-product to be had incidentally and enjoyed without conflict with 
any other interests. In view of the recent additional evidence 
proving the dollar value of wildlife, would it not be well to recon- 
der the importance of establishing the highest possible wildlife 
population levels by maintaining and improving range carrying 
capacity? An adequate supply of natural preferred food and cover, 
created through proper habitat management on the range, will provide 
more game, more hunting, and will also effectively reduce seedling 
and other forest damage somtimes attributed to game. 

The action phase of forest wildlife management is based 
on certain principles or concepts, some of which may be enumerated. 
This list of ideas is neither original nor complete, but it does 
contain some of the more important points providing for coordinated 
use of forests for production of both timber and wildlife. 

The twin terms "interspersion" and juxtaposition" set the 
pattern for both forest and farm game management. The concept of 
juxtaposition merely requires that all the elements of habitat 
necessary for a given wildlife species occur within the cruising 
radius of that species. The concept of interspersion requires that 
all parts of a given range, or management unit, have a distribution 
of essential habitat elements so as to make all parts of that range 
productive of game. 

Lest the impression be created that it is proposed to 
convert all forest land to mast trees and pasture, other concepts 
must be added. Almost every forest type, and every stage of 
development of each forest type, is of some value to some form of 
wildlife. To be sure, not all are equally valuable, but it must be 
recognized that each does contribute something to the range. The 
recently cut-over forest provides abundant deer browse. This, 
with an increasing component of fruiting species, develops into what 
might be called a "grouse" stage. In due course of time the mature 
forest provides mast for squirrels, turkey, bear, and deer. This 
is pointed out to invite attention to the fact that good wildlife 
management does not necessarily require special or supplementary 
practices, but rather does require an awareness of wildlife needs 
which must be incorporated into cutting schedules and cutting rules. 

Interspersion and juxtaposition also could be attained 
through consideration of wildlife needs in marking rules or pres- 
criptions. Before any stand is scheduled for cutting, it should be 
carefully examined for its wildlife potential. Does cutting of this 
particular stand lend itself to browse production or mast production? 
Is it to be a heavy cut or a thinning of mast production trees? 
Would it be necessary to retain den trees? Certainly, if it is not 
in squirrel or raccoon country, den trees are not necessary. Should 
seed trees of certain species be left? Ought special measures be 
taken to protect grape tangles, old apple trees, dogwoods, or other 
food producing plants? 



- 12 - 

Since the productivity of the range is almost entirely- 
determined by the nature and scheduling of logging jobs, it might 
be a good idea to call in the game consultants at periodic intervals 
to assist with the scheduling of sales and the preparation of cutting 
prescriptions. Preparation of forest type maps, or stand condition 
maps, with wildlife features also indicated would help to insure 
that all parts of the range were being given proper consideration. 

Another "coordination concept" is that of the cutting unit. 
While the cutting unit idea is a product of the European school of 
forestry and, in some cases, has been replaced in this country by 
the periodic inventory, its application lends itself very nicely to 
forest wildlife management because it can be the most practical means 
of accomplishing both interspersion and juxtaposition. This approach 
requires that the land to be managed be divided into tracts of con- 
venient size which may range from one to several thousand acres 
each. They may be individual small watersheds or property boundaries. 
It is not necessary that these tracts be of the same size. Other 
factors, such as logging access, natural fire control, or drainage 
units, are more important size-determining elements. 

In managing such a cutting unit for deer, the entire block 
should be within the cruising radius of the herd. The browse needs 
of the herd could be met by scheduling logging in such a way as to 
have some part of the area, possibly 10 percent, in good deer browse 
range. In addition, another portion of the unit could be in optimum 
grouse range. A third could be in the mast -producing stage. 

It is obvious that the smaller the cutting unit, the more 
assurance there would be of securing adequate juxtaposition of 
required elements for the various game species. Likewise, the more 
cutting units set up for this level of management, the nearer would 
be the maximum interspersion on the entire range. All parts of the 
range would be producing both timber and wildlife. 

Putting together the idea of a cutting unit and a recogni- 
tion of the value of the various stand ages, it is possible to go in 
the direction of fulfilling the requirements of interspersion 
and juxtaposition by manipulating cutting schedules and prescrip- 
tions. Cutting schedules often are the result of a careful choice 
following the consideration of a number of alternates. Sometimes 
market demands single out particular stands, but more often several 
different stands can satisfy a particular demand. The latter is 
bound to be more frequently the case with the constant improvement 
of our forests through careful management. Within the framework of 
such a latitude, the ranger can conduct his logging in those places 
where there is a need for browse, or he may refrain for a while from 
removing mast producing stands until other potential stands grow 
into productive stage. 

Another important concept of value to both forest and game 
management is that management should, so far as possible, be related 
to the specific local site. An easy solution may be sought through 
the adoption of sweeping uniform policies, such as planting long leaf 
pine in the eastern part of the state and white pine in the west, 
but it is well known that planting site conditions vary from place to 



- 13 - 

place, almost down to the individual acre. Management policies, 
which make allowance for such local variation, will come much closer 
to satisfying the needs of wildlife than those calling for the 
uniform region-wide application of a single practice. Fruits, mast, 
and browse can be produced without disrupting policy execution, or 
interfering with the primary management plan, where forest management 
policy recognizes local variations. 

A specialized aspect of site- management has been described 
by H. D. Burke in his compendium of forest wildlife research needs; 
namely, the concept of forest holms : h-o-l-m-s. This calls for 
the preservation from cutting of selected spots of a few acres which 
appear to be particularly desirable or effective in providing wild- 
life habitat needs through some circumstance of topography, drainage, 
or vegetation. Examples are a small grove of hickory trees, a 
grape tangle, a swampy spot, an old home site, or an apple orchard. 

The next concept to be considered is related to the others. 
Hardwoods generally are of greater benefit to wildlife than are pines , 
This is especially true of such hardwoods as the oaks, hickories, 
black gum, beech, and other fruit and mast producers. It would be 
disastrous to the wildlife of a hardwood forest to decree its conver- 
sion to pure stands of pine. Hardwoods in a pure stand of pine 
reduce its potential timber value. But hardwoods maintain wildlife 
range carrying capacity. With the known dollar value of wildlife 
at a high level, the combined value of a mixed timber stand plus 
game is worth more than the pine standing alone. 

These are some of the more important concepts on which 
forest wildlife management should be based. These concepts, activa- 
ted by an attitude which recognizes and respects the true values of 
both forests and wildlife as twin crops, can result in the applica- 
tion of helpful techniques and practices for both resources. 



■ : . i 



- 14 - 

STATISTICS AND COMMENTS ON THE 

PELEE ISLAND PHEASANT SHOOT - 1956. 

by 
L. J. Stock 



Including band recoveries of imported birds released in 
March and September, 1956. 

Number of hunters Non-resident #25 - #5% 

Resident 147 - 15% 

Total 972 

Bag limit 6 cocks, hens 

Birds bagged per hunter - Cocks (36% sample) - 5.6$ 

Percent of hunters who bagged their limit of 6 cocks - 89.0 

Total birds bagged - 5,520 

Composition of the bag 

Native juveniles 2653 - 51.7% 

Native adults 562 - 10.5% 

Native total 3435 - 62.23% 

September releases 2042 - 37«0 % 

March releases 43 - 0.77$ 

TOTAL bag, cocks only 5520 - 100.00% 

Loss and illegal kill (10% estimated) 552 

TOTAL kill, cocks 6072 

Age ratio of native birds at the 

shoot - cocks 5.9 Juveniles per Adult 

Sex ratios 

Pre-season (Oct. 30-31) 1.22 cocks per hen 

(963 birds counted) 

Post-season (Nov. 7-$) 1 cock per 7.0 hens 

(412 birds counted) 

Population Estimates, using the Kelker Index 

Number of Birds Before the Hunt Number of Birds After Hunt 

Cocks 6,632 760 

Hens 5,600 5,320« 



TOTAL 12,432 6,060 

x This allows for five percent loss and illegal kill of hens. 



.' I 






- 15 - 



Composition of the Population Before and After the Hunt, 1956 









P 


o p u 1 a t ■ 


L o n 




Cocks 


B< 


sfore Hunt 

3,535 

717 

2,527 

53 


B 


No. Shot % 

3,140 

633 

2,247 

47 

6,072 

270 
10 


Shot 

39 
39 
39 
39 

39 

5 
5 

5 

burr 


After Hunt 


Native juveniles 
Native adults 
Sept. imports 
March imports 


395 

79 

230 

6 


TOTAL Cocks 
Hens 




6,332 

5,405 
195 


760 


Native 

March imports 


5,135 
135 


TOTAL Hens 
TOTAL POPULATION 


Cocks 
Hens 


5,600 
12,432 


230 
6,352 

and R e ' 


5,320 
6,030 

1 s 




Number 
Banded 

300 
1,300 


Number Percent 
Shot of Bag 

47 0.77 
00 0.00 


Survival Rate 
to Oct. 31 


March releases - 


17.7 
15.0 


(estimated) 



Sept. releases - Cocks 3,000 2,247 37.0 
Band returns computed from 32 percent sample. 



34.1 



This survival rate compares with that of 192 cocks released in 
March, 1952, when 15% survived to the shoot. 

Comments 

The Pheasant Population 

During 1956 it was necessary to revise the population 
twice. First after the release of 1,350 hens and 350 cocks in 
March and again after the release of 3,000 cocks in September. 
These are all incorporated, along with the native birds, in the 
final estimate. 

The final estimate of 6,350 cocks available to shoot is 
very close to the total birds before the shoot, 6,332 as calculated 
using the Kelker Index. This accuracy supports our estimate of 
5,320 hens remaining after the shoot. 



- 16 r 

Sex Ratios 

The 3,000 cocks released in September resulted in a 
preponderance of cocks in the population shown by the pre-season 
sex ratio of 1.22 cocks per hen. 

Both the pre-season and post-season sex ratios, we 
believe, are representative of the population. There was no 
difficulty in flushing sufficient birds for a good sample. The 
post-season count was taken on the Monday and Tuesday following 
the shoot, when the birds were dispersed throughout the whole 
Island, and we believe the observed cock to hen ratio of one to 
seven is a good one. 

Survival of Banded Birds 

The first shipment of some 915 birds arrived in March 
and were banded as released. The remainder of the March imports 
were banded before shipment to Pelee. During the banding opera- 
tions on Pelee, 9& birds escaped, leaving approximately 300 cocks 
and 1,300 hens banded. The total shipment numbered 350 cocks and 
1,350 hens. In the calculations the escapees are considered as 
native birds. 

Of the 300 cocks released, 53 or 17.7 percent were alive 
on Oct. 31st. The survival of the banded hens was estimated at 15 
percent, due to a higher rate of mortality, hence 195 hens sur- 
vived to Oct. 31st. The remaining 5,405 hens are native birds. 

The 3,000 cocks released in September constituted 37 
percent of the bag with a survival rate of 34.1 percent. These 
were banded before shipment to Pelee. 

Future Prospects 

Comparing 1956 with previous records, we find that the 
hen population after the shoot in 1951 was approximately the same 
as in 1956 - 5,300 birds. 

In 1952, the total kill was 6,900 cocks and 1,500 hens 
shot by 1,175 hunters. We have a record of 192 cocks released 
on March 15, 1952, but no hen releases. The population after the 
hunt in 1952 was 7,200 hens and 800 cocks. 

It is obvious that both adult and chick survival must 
have been above average and that hatching success was good in 
1951-52. 

If the survival rates for adults and chicks follow the 
average trends, and the percentage of broodless hens is near 
normal, we can expect some 3,000 nesting hens in July, 1957. In 



- 17 - 

other words the same number as in 1956 after the release of 1,300 
imports in March, 1956. With conditions similar to 1956, the 
cocks available to shoot will be about 4,000. 

The population now is low and with good conditions there 
is a good possibility that the increase will be above average, 
but it is also well to bear in mind that there is no guarantee 
that such will be the case. 

In any event, the July survey in 1957 should give a 
good indication of any population change. 



- 13 - 

REPORT ON AGE AND SEX OF RUFFED GROUSE 

SWASTIKA DISTRICT, 1956. 

by 
R. C. Johanson 



During the 1956 season for ruffed grouse in the Swastika 
District, 84 wings and tail feathers were collected for aging 
purposes. 

The following tables give the comparisons of this year's 
figures with those of 1955* 



19 5 5 





Adults 


Juveniles 


Males 


12 


42 


Females 


13 


35 


Unsexed 








TOTAL 


25 


77 



19 5 6 



Adult s Juveniles Unaged 
7 30 1 
6 26 2 
2 10 



Ratio: 1 Adult 9-7.4 Juveniles 



15 66 3 
1 Adult $ - 11 Juveniles 



It is probable that our ruffed grouse are on the increase 
when comparing the figures of 1955 with the 1956 figures. 

We would not call this a random sample of ruffed grouse 
wings and tail feathers because the ruffed grouse hunting is 
along various access roads throughout the District. 



£ I 



- 19 - 

TWEED DISTRICT DEER, 1955 

by 
P. a. Thompson 



As in previous years three deer checking stations were in 
operation during the 1955 deer season. They were located at 
Millbridge, Kaladar and Arnprior. The Arnprior station was operated 
as a joint effort by Pembroke and Tweed District. We are most 
grateful for the help supplied by the Belleville and District Fish 
and Game Club, the Kingston Rod and Gun Club and Department staff 
from other districts. 

Figures on resident and non-resident hunters' success for 
the past four seasons are as follows: 

1955 1954 19? ? 1??2 

Resident Hunters 2392 2969 2627 2792 

Non-Resident Hunters 135 91 133 30 

Total Hunters 3027 3060 2760 2322 

Deer 869 980 885 897 

Success 28.7$ 32.02% 32.1$ 31.8$ 

Man Days per Deer 19.25 15.8 17.4 21.8 

This year efforts were made to obtain varying success on 
different categories of hunters. All hunters passing through the 
checking stations were questioned on their hunting practices and 
classified under the following categories: 

1. Organized : hunters who returned year after year to the same 

camp, cottage or house and hunted the same familiar 
country. 

2. Local : hunters vho hunted familiar country in the vicinity of 

their homes. 

3. Casual : hunters who drive out for a day or week-end to hunt in 

unfamiliar country without a guide or stand on a hydro 
line or road side. 

4. Guided : hunters who stayed in commercial camps, hotels or other 

accommodations, who hunt in familiar country with the 
services of guides who know the locality. 

5. Not classified : hunters who passed through the checking stations 

at rush periods and were not classified. 

The following is a breakdown of hunters by category showing 
their success. 





- <cu - 














No. 


of Hunters 


Deer 


t 


Success 


Kj 


of Total 
.11 Taken 




1641 
106 

403 
254 
572 


517 
17 
47 
53 

196 




31. 
16, 

11, 
20, 
34. 


.5 
,3 

,6 
,3 
,2 




62.3 
2.0 
5.7 
6.4 

23.6 



Category of Hunters 

Organized 

Local 

Casual 

Guided 

Not Classified 

Weights ; 

Extra efforts were made to weigh as many animals as 
possible as they passed through the checking stations. A total of 
434 deer were weighed, average weights by sex and age class are 
given in table I. 

table i 

Total Weight Average Weight 

Sex Age Class No. Weighed In Pounds In Pounds 

Male J 63 4331 63.7 

Male lj 72 8331 116.4 

Male 2§ 45 6664 143.0 

Male 3§ 39 6369 176.1 

Male 4§ 21 4034 192.0 

Male 5§ 11 2037 135.1 

Male 6} 2 341 170.5 

Male 7 1 1 203 203.0 

Female £ 60 3774 62.9 

Female 1$ 34 3367 99.0 

Female 2i 34 3657 107.5 

Female 3$ 21 2401 114.3 

Female 4§ 15 1769 117.9 

Female 5$ 9 1002 111.3 

Female 6$ 4 453 113.2 

Female 7 1 3 332 110.6 






- 21 - 



Average deer weights by age class over the past 
seasons are recorded in table II, 

Average Weight in Pounds by Age Clas 




Year Sex J. U ,. 7 2h.. z , 3h , J±k _5i 6& . 

1955 Bucks 69 116 143 -176 192 185 170 /203 . >z 

1954 Bucks 69,e 111^140'^ 173 m 174# 173^° - t * - £u> 203 ^ 

1953 Bucks 66' 110' 147 136 133 193 167 - 213 /z it) 

1952 Bucks 70 110 147 169 , 195 199 204 222 226 L 

1955 Does 63 99 107 115 1$T 111 113 lll llft - 0jL 

1954 Does 63 , 100., 110.x 111^\ 112 N ^ -^ 116^144'^ - * n 

1953 Does 64^ 94^104^ 105 117 102A 102 103 103 
1952 Does 61 92 110 114 112 117 1 - 113 

Aging and Sexing: 

For comparison the age class percentages for 1952-53-54 
and 55 are given in table III. 






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- 23 - 



When aging figures are worked out on a district basis they 
again show an increase in the fawn production, 34.4$ of the sample 
as compared to 31*5$ of last season. However, when aging figures are 
worked out by townships it is quite plain that certain areas are 
responsible for this increase. H. G. Lumsden, in his 1952 report on 
Tweed district deer, broke the district's recognized deer area into 
twelve groups, each group consisted of two to five townships in size. 
Figures collected from the 1955 deer checking stations were applied 
to these areas and the following results may be compared with figures 
of the 1952 report. (See Fish & Wildl. Mgt. Rept. #14, Nov., 1953.) 



1. McClure, Herschel, Wicklow and Monteagle 



Hunters 194 
Bucks 32$ 



Deer 62 
Does 32$ 
Fawn:Doe Ratio 110:100 



Success 32$ 
Fawns 36 



2. Faraday, Dungannon, Wollaston, Limerick 



Hunters 233 
Bucks 39$ 



Deer 38 
Does 28$ 
Fawn: Doe Ratio 116:100 



Success 31$ 
Fawns 33$ 



3. Tudor and Lake 



Hunters 272 
Bucks 37$ 



Deer 84 
Does 31$ 
Fawn: Doe Ratio 104:100 



4. Carlow, Raglan, Radcliffe and Bangor 



Hunters 60 
Bucks 46$ 



Deer 28 
Does 18$ 
Fawn: Doe Ratio 200:100 



Success 31$ 
Fawns 32$ 



Success 47$ 
Fawns 36$ 



5. Mayo, Ashby, Cashel, Effingham 



Hunters 358 
Bucks 43$ 



Deer 109 
Does 29$ 
Fawn Doe Ratio 97:100 



6, Grimsthorpe and Anglesea 



Hunters 251 
Bucks 39$ 



Deer 85 
Does 29$ 
Fawn: Doe Ratio 108:100 



Success 30$ 
Fawns 28$ 



Success 34$ 
Fawns 32$ 



7. Griffith, Lyndoch, Sebastopol, Brudenell 



Hunters 309 
Bucks 40$ 



Deer 93 
Does 27$ 
Fawn: Doe Ratio 124:100 



8. Denbigh, Matawatchan, Abinger, Miller 



Hunters 501 
Bucks 43$ 



Deer 143 
Does 35$ 
Fawn: Doe Ratio 62:100 



Success 30$ 
Fawns 33$ 



Success 28$ 
Fawns 22$ 



- 24 - 



9. Barrie, Clarendon, Palmerston 



Hunters 121 
Bucks 33% 



Deer 36 
Does 33% 
Fawns Doe Ratio 100 s 100 



10. Brougham, Grattan, Admaston, Blythfield 



Hunters 238 
Bucks 44% 



Deer 54 
Does 26% 
Fawn:Doe Ratio 114:100 



11. Bagot, McNab, Darling, Lavant , Pakenham 



Hunters 6$ 
Bucks 35% 



Deer 17 
Does kl% 
Fawn: Doe Ratio 37:100 



12. Kaladar, Kennebec, Elzevir 



Hunters 26 
Bucks 66% 



Deer 6 
Does 17% 
Fawn: Doe Ratio 100:100 



Success j\jjo 
Fawns 33% 



Success 23% 
Fawns 30% 



Success 25% 
Fawns 18% 



Success 23% 
Fawns 17% 



District fawn doe ratio 99:100 
District adult buck doe ratio 132:100 

The samples from some of these groups are small, perhaps 
too small to draw definite conclusions. However, they do point out 
that the increase in the fawn production came from the western portion 
of the district groups 1 to 7. Group 3, the townships of Lake and 
Tudor, shows a substantial increase in both hunters* success and 
fawn production. There are two probable causes for the low rate of 
fawn production and hunters * success in the eastern part of the 
district. (1) Above average snow fall may have restricted does in 
their winter feeding habits to such an extent that they were unable 
to produce. (2) District timber management staff have indicated 
that portions of the forest in the eastern part of the district are 
more mature and that over the past 4 or 5 years cutting operations 
have been at a minimum in certain areas. The balance of the 
eastern forests has been held under timber licence for 40 or 50 
years without cutting operations taking place. 

Lactation and shedding of milk teeth 

The first information on the lactation of female deer was 
collected during the 1954 season. At that time only 1^ year old 
deer were examined. This year, 1955, 250 female deer in all age 
classes passed through the deer checking stations. Department staff 
were able to examine 153 or 6l.2% of these animals. The following 
table gives the percentages of milking does in each age class. 









- 25 - 

Age Class Milking Dry Total Percent Milking 

li 7 37 44 15.9 

24 33 10 43 76.7 

3f 24 6 30 80.0 

4§ IB 18 100.0 

5} 6 6 100.0 

6§ 5 16 83.3 

7j 4 2 6 66.6 

The shedding of milk teeth by deer in the lj year age 
class was again checked and the results are as follows: 

Shed Unshed Total Percent Shed 

Males 16 29 45 35.5$ 

Females 10 20 30 33.3% 

Crown land camp hunters : 

Hunters who have established hunt camps on Crown land under 
authority of a land use permit were supplied with a deer report form 
and asked for its completion. From the 278 permittees, 200 returns 
were made. Of the 200 returns made, 174 were fully completed, 14 
gave no date of deer killed and 12 did not use their camps. The 
following information was obtained from the returns made. 

Permittees Returns Made Hunters Deer Percent Success 

278 200 1477 741 50.2 

The hunters* success from Crown land camps for the past 
five hunting seasons is as follows: 



Year 


No. of Hunters 


No. 


of Deer 


Percent Success 


1951 


605 




467 




77.2 


1952 


717 




468 




65.4 


1953 


986 




565 




57.4 


1954 


1589 




906 




56.7 


1955 


1477 




741 




50.1 



The distribution of kill was calculated from 174 reports 
consisting of 1386 hunters and 684 deer. 

No. Sportsmen No. Parties Deer % of Total % Hunter 
1st Week Hunting Reporting Killed Kill Success 



Nov. 7 


1225 


169 


118 


17.2 


9.6 


Nov. 8 


1227 


171 


97 


14.2 


7.9 


Nov. 9 


1217 


170 


100 


14.6 


8.2 


Nov. 10 


1201 


169 


84 


12.3 


6.9 


Nov. 11 


1163 


I64 


70 


10.2 


6.0 


Nov. 12 


1022 


146 


75 


11.0 


7.3 



- 26 - 





No, 


, Sportsmen 


No. Part 


ies 


Deer 


$ of Total 


$ Hunti 


2nd Week 




Hunting 


Reporti 
76 


n S 


Killed 
36 


Kill 


Succe 


Nov. 14 




492 


5-3 


7.3 


Nov. 15 




434 


74 




23 


3.4 


4.7 


Nov. 16 




403 


65 




6 


.8 


1.4 


Nov. 17 




403 


62 




13 


1.9 


3.2 


Nov. Id 




371 


57 




37 


5.4 


9.9 


Nov. 19 




284 


44 




25 


3.7 


3.8 


Weather 

















Studies have shown that snow depths of 24 inches begin to 
hamper deer in their movements and restrict them in their search for 
food. Snow depths recorded at the Dacre snow station show an 
average of 28.7 inches of snow, with a "B" crust on the ground from 
January 24th to March 28th. Over the same period the average snow 
depth at Bancroft was 24.8 inches. When data from the checking 
stations of these areas are compared we find that the Dacre area 
had a 28$ hunters' success, a fawn-doe ration of 66 to 100 and a 
22$ fawn kill, while the Bancroft area had a 32$ hunters' success, 
a fawn-doe ratio of 110 to 100 and a 36$ fawn kill. Figures of this 
nature indicate that winter weather is probably the greatest limit- 
ing factor governing our deer herd. 



Weather 
partly responsibl 
to 32.02$ of 1954 
sured rainfall of 
average. These h 
for deer to evade 
checking stations 
than the scarcity 



before and 

e for the 1 

During 

10.83 inch 

eavy rains 

dogs with 

with a lig 

of deer wa 



during the 1955 deer season may be 
ower hunters' success, 28,7$ as compared 
ctober 1955, Tweed District had a mea- 
es which was roughly 7 inches above 
flooded low areas making it possible 
ease. Many hunters passing through- the 
ht kill reported that high water rather 
s the cause of their low success. 



- 27 - 



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- 28 - 



DEER MORTALITY IN THE LAKE ERIE DISTRICT, 1956 

compiled by 
L. J. Stock 



Showing 

1. The yearly kill - 5 years compared. 

2. The mortality 1956 for each month in each Conservation Officer's 
area. 

3. The mortality in each County showing total kill, cause and 
damage to vehicles. 

l+» Miscellaneous kills in detail. 

5. Age classes. 

6. Weights of deer. 

7. Loss by mutilation and decomposition. 

8. Sex ratios. 

9. Susceptibility to highway accidents - bucks, does and fawns 
compared. 

10. Comments. 



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- 31 - 



Miscellaneous Kills 



Deaths due to causes other than highway accidents or 
poaching are grouped under miscellaneous. These are broken down 
as follows; 

Drowned 15; caught in fences 13; by train 11; by dogs or 
wolves 5; two large bucks in the Niagara District died in combat 
with their antlers locked; two were killed by lightning; one was 
killed by a windfall tree; one by a corn picker; one ran through 
a store window in town and had to be destroyed. Of the remainder 
the cause of death is in doubt and is listed as unknown. 

It is interesting to note that of the 302 known dead only 
26 were victims of natural hazards such as drowning, combat and 
lightning. In all other cases the hazards were man made. These 
observations lend emphasis to the problems of raising big game in 
an intensely populated area. 

Damage to Highway Vehicles 

Of 59 reported accidents total damage amounted to 
V9»325.00 for an average of ^ 166.00 each. The individual damage 
in some cases was in excess of #500.00. 



Percent of Kill 

23 
39 
23 
10 

3 
2 



Age Classes; (7< 

Age 


% of 


Kill) 

Numb 


er of Deer 


Under 1 year 
1-2 years 
2-3 years 
3-4 years 
4-5 years 
5 - 6 + years 


49 
S3 
43 
22 
6 
5 


TOTAL 

Weights of Deer 




213 



100.0 



The average weight of 7# animals, 26 percent of entire 
kill was 116 pounds. This includes all age classes. 

The average weight of 22 fawns killed in October, 
November and December was 76 pounds. 

Loss by Mutilation and Decomposition 

Positive reports of 240 animals show that 165 or 70% were 
unfit for human consumption. This is an increase from 39.2$ in 
1955. Gross loss in meat in 1956 was 19,140 pounds - almost 10 
tons. 






- 32 - 

Sex Ratio 

The sex ratio of 270 animals (all ages) was 1.5 males 
per one female. 

Susceptibility of Bucks, Does and Fawns to Highway Accidents 

Of a total of 131 animals involved in highway accidents 
the proportion of bucks, does and fawns was 68 to 32 to 31 respec- 
tively (approximately 2 to 1 to 1) . Thus more bucks are killed 
on roads than does and fawns combined. Bucks and does were adults 
at least one year old; fawns under one year. All age classes are 
represented. 

Comments 

The increase in mortality over 1955 of 33 percent or 
75 deer is an average increase of over 6 deer per month. If this 
rate is maintained the kill in 1957 will be over one deer per day. 
The average increase per County is over $ deer. 

In spite of the higher mortality the percentage of road 
casualties actually decreased from 57.7 to 52. The poaching rate 
increased from 9.7 to 22 percent. The increase of miscellaneous 
accidents accounted for the remainder. 

The monthly kill follows the usual pattern, building up 
to a peak in November, with a minor peak in May. 

The percent of fawns increased from 20 to 23 percent; 
the other age classes remained in approximately the same propor- 
tion. 

The male to female ratio changed from 2.13/1 in 1955 $ 
to 1.5/1 in 1956o 

Damage to Vehicles 

The average damage to vehicles dropped slightly but the 
number of accidents reported doubled. Damage in some cases was 
in excess of &500.00. 

The average weight per animal was less by 10 pounds 
probably due to a larger number of fawns and does in the total 
kill. 

The total gross loss (deer unfit for human consumption) 
increased due to a higher percentage of wasted animals and a 
greater kill, to almost double that in 1955- 

Many more deer are killed annually than the total 302 
reported, which is a minimum. Some highway accidents are not 
reported. Some die from natural causes and are not found. It is 
impossible to know the poachers 9 kill - estimates vary from 5 to 
12 times the number of deer found which have obviously been shot. 



- 33 - 



Damage to Crops 



Although reports of crop damage, up to the present time, 
have been found negligible in many cases, a few reports of serious 
damage by deer have been heard this past year. Young orchards, 
forest seedlings, nursery stock and corn are the crops concerned. 
Loss in some cases has amounted to several thousand dollars. 









- 34 - 



WINTER LIVE TRAPPING, CHAPLEAU GAME PRESERVE, 1957 

by 

V. Crichton 



Live trapping for fisher and marten was carried out in the 
Manning, Busby and Lloyd Townships in the Chapleau Game Preserve 
from January 30th, on which date traps were first set out, to 
February 15th, when the traps were picked up. 

During this period of 16 days, 3$ marten were trapped 
consisting of 23 males and 15 females. 

The high and low temperatures of each day were recorded in 
an effort to correlate certain temperatures with movements or marten 
activity, as follows in Table I. 



TABLE I 



January 30 
January 31 
February 1 
February 2 
February 3 
February 4 
February 5 
February 6 
February 7 
February 8 
February 9 
February 10 
February 11 
February 12 
February 13 
February 14 
February 15 



Low High (above ) 



Mean 



Marten Trapped 



-42 


12 


-15° 




- 2 


10 


+ 4° 


4 


-36 


IS 


- 9° 


7 


-30 


18 


- 6° 


2 


+ 5 


22 


+13° 


4 


- 2 


22 


+10° 


3 


-IS 


28 


+ 5° 


2 


- 6 


34 


+14° 


1 


+12 


34 


+23° 


4 


-22 


26 


+ 2° 


7 


+12 


26 


+19° 


1 


-24 


18 


- 3° 





-32 


20 


- 6° 





+ 6 


28 


+17° 


1 


+16 


30 


+23° 





-25 


31 


* 3 n 


2 


-25 


31 


+ 3° 






38 



Disposition of Marten ; 

The disposal of these marten is shown as follows I 

Thirty-one (31) marten, 19 males and 12 females, to Sudbury. 

Three ( 3) marten, 2 males and 1 female, to Michigan. 

Three ( 3) marten, 2 males and 1 female, died. 

One ( l) marten, female, escaped. 



- 35 - 

What started out to be a live fisher trapping project 
ended in a marten trapping project. 

Various places along the lumber roads were baited with 
horse meat, starting on January 3rd. This attracted fisher, marten 
and fox. 

Traps were set out on January 30th. Traps numbered from 
15 to 33 with an average of 27 working traps per trap-day. During 
this period from January 30th to February 15th, 433 trap-days were 
employed to take 3$ marten, a total of 11 trap-days per animal unit 
caught . 

The number of traps closed during this period was 43 from 
mechanical and other causes. 

Other Mammals and Birds Caught 

5 Downy Woodpeckers 
1 Canada Jay 
1 Red Squirrel 

Traps Used 

Two sizes of collapsible traps were used, manufactured by 
the National Live Trap Company of Tomahawk, Wisconsin. The smaller 

u" x 6i !I x 6h n whil< 



size measured 24" x 6|" x 6J" while the large ones were 32" x 9i" x 



9*n 



How Traps Were Set 

Snow was scooped out to a depth of four to five inches and 
this depression was filled with spruce or balsam boughs. Traps were 
set approximately level with snow and covered well with spruce or 
balsam boughs. 

Type of Bait Used 

Beaver meat and oil of rodium. 

Three fisher entered the traps, two in smaller traps and 
one in a bigger trap. None of the traps were strong enough to hold 
the fisher. The two smaller type traps were completely wrecked while 
the large one had the end ripped out. 

Cost Per Marten 

Gasoline $ SO. 42 



Meals at Lumber Camps 



60.80 



Hay and Food for Marten $ 6.00 

TOTAL $147.22 

COST PER MARTEN | 3.88 



- 36 - 

Conservation Officers' wages are not included in the 
above as they are not included in the cost of marten on summer 
operations. 

The cost of $3»$3 per marten for winter trapping to date 
is much lower than the cost of $10.55 per marten for summer trapping 
(1956), wages not included. With wages other than Conservation 
Officers, the cost per marten is from 17 to 25 dollars. 

Summary 

The types of collapsible traps used are ideal for marten 
trapping, especially the smaller traps. The doors on the large 
size traps can be sprung by marten. 

Traps for fisher must be, if our past experiences are any 
criterion, of stronger material, with a solid back and a stronger 
and more rigid door. 

Baiting the sites is very helpful. However, bait should 
be allowed to deteriorate to a fair degree before baiting the sites 
and should be placed earlier on the bare ground. Fresh, frozen bait 
such as horse meat, moose, beef, etc., is not too useful as the 
odour is limited. 

In many cases, fisher would frequent the sites and the 
trap area but would not go into the traps. They often knocked the 
trap about and caused some damage. 

The marten catch during the last seven days amounted to 
four marten, as compared to 34 marten in the first nine days. This 
drop cannot be explained as there were still plenty of marten in 
the area of the traps. 

Cold nights did not seem to restrict the movements and 
activities of marten. 

Fox cubes as are used in the summer feeding of marten are 
not recommended for winter feeding. Had it not been for careful 
observation, we probably would have lost a considerable number of 
marten from starvation. The fox cubes were hidden in the hay in the 
pens and not eaten. We then resorted to Dr. Ballard's Dog Food 
(canned) until beaver carcasses could be obtained. It is recom- 
mended that, prior to winter live trapping, a supply of beaver 
carcasses should be obtained with which to feed the marten. A 
beaver meat diet certainly results in contented marten. 

Examination of marten scats indicates that mountain ash 
berries are part of their winter diet. 

It is hoped to continue with this trapping in March. 



- 37 - 
VARIATION IN SURVIVAL RATE 

OF THE 
WESTERN REGION DEER HERD 

by 
R. Boultbee 
October 15, 1956. 



A deer check station has been operated by the Western 
Region of the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests for the five 
years from 1951 to 1955. In four of the five years the proportion 
of fawns was less than the next older age class due to lower availa- 
bility, hunter selectivity or other cause. This condition introduced 
difficulty in estimating true herd proportions and rates of survival 
or mortality. Some investigators ignore the fawn age class and work 
with ages of one and a half years and over. 

In a manuscript by Mr„ R„ C. Passmore entitled "Interpreta- 
tion of Kill Curves of White-tailed Deer", dated 1953, it is stated 
that the relationship between two successive year classes is estab- 
lished during the early years of vulnerability. A succession of 
identical seasons might be expected to cause two successive year 
classes to progress through the herd in lessening numbers, but 
retaining the same mutual ratio till close to their dropping out of 
the herd. 

Under natural conditions the ratio between two age classes 
may vary from year to year. In addition the game check introduces 
sampling errors. It is the purpose of this paper to study the ratio 
between age classes as they progress through the herd, and to 
separate possible sources of variation. The conclusions will help 
the deer worker to reach a better understanding of the influences 
affecting his data. Like many such studies the data are meagre, but 
sufficient to obtain answers with a fair degree of significance. 
The methods used can be applied to other life forms. 

Table one gives the kill figures for the five seasons of 
the Western Region deer check. Fawns are excluded on the assumption 
that the figures are less than the true proportions. 

TABLE I - Number of Deer Checked 



Check 




















Station Year 


1.5 


2.5 


3.5 


4.5 


111 


6.5 


7.5 


8.5 


9.5 


1951 


44 


32 


53 


39 


19 


14 


2 


2 


1 


1952 


51 


24 


IS 


25 


14 


9 


9 


4 


3 


1953 


164 


132 


72 


33 


15 


12 


10 


1 


- 


1954 


110 


144 


64 


21 


15 


17 


12 


3 


- 


1955 


174 


182 


134 


62 


23 


16 


16 


8 


- 



. 



- 36 - 



A short inspection of table one reveals changes from year 
to year. For instance in the 1951 check the three and a half year 
animals bear a ratio to the two and a half year animals of 53/32 r 
1.66. One year later in the 1952 check the survivors have the ratio 
25/lS ~ 1.39. Subsequent ratios of the same animals are 0.45> 1.13 
and 1.00. Considerable change can be seen from year to year. 

The type of ratio discussed in the preceding paragraph 
will be symbolized by the letter »Y». To identify the age classes 
involved a subscript will be added indicating the younger age class. 
For instance in the 1951 check the ratio 53/32 I 1.66 is symbolized 

Y 2.5- 

Table two gives all the ratios obtainable from table one. 
Each horizontal line follows the progress of two groups through the 
herd. The left hand column gives the year of origin of the ratio. 
For instance from table one the 1954 check gives the ratio Yi # 5 = 
144/110 = 1.31. The one and a half year old group numbering 110 in 
the ratio obviously had its origin in 1953 and reference to table 
two will show Y1.5 ■ 1.31 opposite year of origin 1953. 

TABLE II - Yearly Ratios by Year of Origin 



Year of 




Rat 


i 


Age 


C 1 


ass 


e s 




Totals 
0.50 




Origin 


Y 1.5 


Y 2.5 


Y 3.5 


Y 4.5 


Y 5-5 


Y 6.5 


Y 7.5 


Y 6.5 
0.50 


Averages 


1943 


0.50 


1944 














1.00 


0.75 


1.75 


0.66 


1945 












0.14 


0.44 


— - 


0.56 


0.29 


1946 










0.74 


1.00 


0.10 


— - 


1.64 


0.61 


1947 








0.49 


O.64 


0.63 


0.25 


-- 


2.21 


0.55 


1946 






0.74 


Oo56 


0.60 


0.71 


0.50 




3.31 


0.66 


1949 




1.66 


1.39 


0.45 


1.13 


1.00 






5.63 


1.13 


1950 


0.73 


0.75 


O.46 


0.71 


0.70 








3.35 


0.67 


1951 


0.47 


0.55 


0.33 


0.37 










1.72 


0.43 


1952 


0.60 


0.44 


O.46 












1.70 


0.57 


1953 


1.31 


0.74 














2.05 


1.02 


1954 


1.05 
















1.05 


1.05 



TOTALS 4.36 4.14 3.36 2.56 4. 01 3.66 2.29 1.25 25.69 
AVGES. 0.67 0.63 0.66 0.52 0.60 0.74 O.46 O.63 



0.69 



Table three repeats the same ratios, but is so arranged 
that horizontal lines indicate the ratios derived from the same game 
check, shown in the left column. 









' . 



- 39 - 



TABLE III - Yearly Ratios, by Game Check Years 



Year of 






R e 


I t 


i o 


Age 


C 1 


a £ 


3 s 


e £ 






Totals 


Ave] 




Origin 


Y 1.5 


Y ; 


!.5 


Y 3.5 


Y 4.5 


Y 5.5 


Y 6.5 


Y 7 


'.5 


Y 8.5 


"ages 


1951 


0. 


73 


1. 


66 


0.74 


0.49 


0.74 


0. 


14 


1. 


00 


0.50 


6, 


,00 





.75 


1952 


0, 


,47 


0. 


75 


1.39 


0.56 


0.64 


1. 


00 


0. 


44 


0.75 


6, 


,00 





.75 


1953 


0, 


,80 


0. 


55 


0.46 


0.45 


0.80 


0. 


83 


0. 


10 


— 


3. 


.99 





.57 


1954 


1. 


.31 


0. 


44 


0.33 


0.71 


1.13 


0. 


71 


0. 


25 


-- 


4< 


,SS 





.70 


1955 


1. 


.05 


0, 


74 


0.46 


0.37 


0.70 


1. 


00 


0. 


50 


— 


4. 


,82 





.69 



TOTALS 4.36 4.14 3.38 2.58 4.01 3.68 2.29 1.25 25.69 
AVGES. 0.87 0.83 0.68 0.52 0.80 0.74 O.46 O.63 



0.69 



The general average of 0.69 in the lower right hand corner 

of tables two and three is of interest. It shows that the herd as 

a whole has an annual survival of 69 per cent, or annual mortality 

of 31 per cent. This applies to animals one and a half years and 
older. 

Another feature of interest is the lowest line of tables 
two and three showing the average values of the ratio Y. This line 
varies considerably above and below the general average of 0.69. 
The reasons for this variation are the object of this study. The 
line of averages is shown in figure one with a straight "line of 
trend" fitted. 



t 40 - 
FIGURE I - Curves of Y, by Value and Year Class 

EQUATION OF LINE OF TRENDS 
Y = 0.3900 - 0.0415 x 





0.90 


\ 






V 


0.30 








a 
1 
u 
e 



f 

R 


0.70 




X^^Line / \. 

\ ^^^ f / ^ 
\ ^<Trend / 

Line of\ ^ s v s / 
AveragesX /"^^ 




a 
t 
i 


0.60 




\ / ^^ 















Y 


0.50 
0.40 




1 i 1 t i 


\ / ^* 
1 I 



1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 

Year Class of Ratio Y 



7.5 



3.5 






. 



- 41 - 



The following table of variance analysis is derived from 
tables two and three. Its construction is described in the text 
book entitled "Statistical Methods 5 ' by F, C. Mills (Henry Holt & 
Co.), chapter XV. A knowledge of the construction is not necessary 
to understand the table. Conclusions are drawn in the paragraphs 
following the table. 



Nature Variability 

Between Age Classes of Y 

a) Line of Trend; 

b) Deviations from line of 
trend; 

Between Years of Origin of Y; 
Between Game Check Years; 
Residual 



Sum of Degrees of Mean 

Squares Freedom Square Significance 



0.29 



4.03 



36 



0.29 



0.47 


6 


0.03 


2.13 


11 


0.19 


0.15 


4 


0.04 


0.99 


14 


0.07 



level 



k1o level 



0.11 



Two influences ar 
on the yearly survival rate 
cent level. The five per c 
indicating the possible pre 
the work of mere chance. L 
or lower are usually accept 
of origin is significant at 
the basis of the data used, 
chance only four times in a 
96 to 4 that a true influen 
Such odds are acceptable to 



e seen to b 

s, in the n 

ent level i 

sence of a 

evels of si 

ed as stron 

the four p 

the effect 

hundred. 

ce is at wo 

most minds 



e significant 
eighbourhood o 
s customarily 
true influence 
gnificance of 
g proof. To 
er cent level 

found could o 
Conversely the 
rk as opposed 



in their effects 
f the five per 
accepted as 

as opposed to 
one per cent 
ay that the year 
means that, on 
ccur by mere 

chances are 
to mere chance. 



Variability due to year class strength (year of origin) 
should be acceptable to most deer workers since they know from 
experience that a strong year class can be followed throughout its 
existence in the herd. This study reduces the thought to more 
specific terms. The strong years can easily be picked from the 
right hand column of table two, and also the weak years by comparing 
them to the general average of 0.69. 

Variability due to differences between game check years 
is seen to have no significance. This means that the per cent level 
of significance indicates such a large play of mere chance that the 
presence of a true influence is unacceptable. This thought is also 
familiar to the deer worker on the basis of experience. Each game 
check comprises several year classes and differences would be 
expected to even themselves out, so that one game check should not 
vary greatly from another. This fact is a valuable aid in deer 
management, because if a "significant" change does show up in a 
game check some new influence will be suspected and sought. Reference 
to the right hand column of table three shows that the average 
survival does not vary far from the general average of 0.69 for 
different game check years. 






- 42 - 

The third source of variation, the line of trend, is 
seen to be significant at the six per cent level. This is above 
the conventional five per cent level, but odds of 94 to 6 are still 
good. This is the most interesting feature of the study since it 
suggests that on the average the rate of survival drops with 
increasing age. The study makes the suggestion without giving the 
cause. Future game checks may yield more details and perhaps 
improve the level of significance. It might be thought that the 
more rugged and crafty animals would survive to raise the survival 
ratio of older age classes but it appears that other forces may be 
at work. Several considerations come to mind. For instance the 
line of averages in figure one descends steadily to age four and 
a half and it may be that increasing availability makes the animals 
more susceptible to hunting pressure. Above age four and a half 
the line of averages becomes notably erratic and inaccuracies in 
aging techniques come to mind as a possible factor. This is not 
very important since only a small part of the herd reaches the older 
ages. Again the ratios of the oldest age classes are based on small 
numbers, a condition which could lead to swings that have no rela- 
tion to the herd. With more data this last type of variability 
should cancel itself out. 

The indications are that the line of trend represents a 
complex of factors requiring more data for better understanding. 

A point of interest is that of deviations from the line of 
trend. This factor is shown not to be significant. This means 
that the deviations of the line of averages from the straight line 
of trend are due to sampling errors. Therefore the line of trend 
is adequately represented by the straight line of figure one rather 
than by a complicated curved line. 

The basis of this study is the 1803 animals of table one. 
However the accuracy of the study, and the significances of the 
table of variance analysis do not depend on the number of animals 
but rather on the number of cells containing figures in tables 
two and three. This number is thirty-seven. Each year's game check 
will add seven or eight more cells and will correspondingly enhance 
the reliability of the study. 

The last point of interest is one for statisticians and 
does not really concern the deer worker. An assumption was made in 
the variance table that the year of origin did not interact in any 
way with the value of Y in different age classes. It is difficult 
to conceive that any such connection could exist. Nevertheless 
the scarcity of data results in a crosswise structure in table two 
such that the smaller values of Y associated with the older age 
classes appear in the earlier years of origin, and vice versa. 
Thus in the right hand column of averages in table two there is a 
false appearance of a trend to higher values in going from earlier 
years of origin to older. 



; 



: . i ■ • : 



- 43 - 

This false trend could have been allowed for in the 
variance table in the same manner as the trend in age classes. 
This course was not chosen, for clarity ? s sake. The modification 
of the "Years of Origin" section of the variance table would have 
been as follows ; 

Sum of Degrees Mean 
Nature Variability S quares of Freedom Square Significance 

Between Years of Origin of Y% 

a) Line of trends 0.11 1 0.11 

b) Deviations from line of 

trends 2.02 10 0.20 3% 



2.13 11 

The effect of the false trend is seen to be not signifi- 
cant, which justifies leaving the variance table unaltered. The 
significance of the remaining variance between years of origin is 
found significant at 3% f an improvement over the original l+%. 

As more years of origin are accumulated in future game 
checks, table two will fill out from side to side and the so-called 
false trend can be expected to grow much smaller. 



- 44 - 

HYBRIDS OF SALVELINUS 

by 

F. E. J. Fry 

November, 1956 



The fertility of the cross between the speckled trout 
and the lake trout makes it almost certain that hybridization 
between these and other species of the genus, together with 
selective breeding of the progeny and further backcrossing, would 
lead to an improved variety of the lake trout for the rehabilita- 
tion of the upper Great Lakes. The desired variety would be a 
fish that combined the lake trout's ability to swim deep with a 
reasonable growth rate and maximum ultimate size together with an 
ability to reach maturity in three years. It would also be 
desirable for this fish to have the pinker flesh of the speckled 
trout. The F]_ hybrid has almost the completely desirable qualities 
except that it does not swim as deep as does the lake trout. Thus 
it appears that selection for the desired characters might be 
attained with considerable rapidity and indeed, if work were 
initiated at once, there might be time to produce the improved 
strain by the time that lamprey control is assured. Moreover, 
the results of the first planting of the hybrid in South Bay have 
shown that some of these fish have got through to their first 
spawning in spite of the presence of the lamprey. Thus an early 
start on this project might ensure the reintroduction of a trout 
into the upper lakes in spite of any possible failure to achieve 
complete control of the lamprey. 

The requirements for the production of an improved lake 
trout appear to be as follows t 

1. Suitable pond and hatchery space are needed. 

2. A collection of parent species which are likely to provide 
desirable genes is required. These species are pre-eminently 
the lake trout and the speckled trout but stocks of the alpine 
char, the red trout of Quebec and the other isolated populations 
of deepwater char of Eastern North America should be collected 
and tested for their mutual fertility and for the qualities 

of their offspring. It is within the bounds of possibility 
that one of the latter isolated populations mentioned above may 
already have the desirable combination of qualities to a large 
degree. 

3. Investigations are needed to elucidate the mechanism which 
determines the date of spawning so that by appropriate manipu- 
lation the various species can be induced to all ripen at the 
same time. 

4. Tests are required by which individuals which can swim deep 
can be selected. The selection for early spawning and good 
flesh colour does not require any new technique. 



- 45 - 

5. A suitable field station for the final testing of progeny- 
thought to possess the desired characteristics is required. 

We are in the fortunate position that none of the 
requirements set forth above appears to be beyond our reach. 



Memorandum in part prepared for presentation at the 1956 meeting 
of the Committee for the Laboratory for Experimental Limnology. 



* 46 - 

SOME AGE AND GROWTH RECORDS OF ONTARIO STURGEON 

( Acipenser fulvescens ) 

by 
0. E. Devitt 



Age determinations of the following lake sturgeon were 
obtained by cutting the dried marginal ray of the pectoral fin into 
transverse sections with a fine-toothed jeweller's saw. The 
sections were immersed in glycerin just prior to examination and 
read under a binocular microscope. 

The results would seem to indicate that lake sturgeon 
are "slow growing and live a long time. 



Locality - Lower Albany River 



Line 

Weight 

(lbs.) 

15.0 
17.0 
13.0 
22.0 
26.0 
32.0 
23.0 
32.0 
35.0 
36.0 
44.0 



Field 


Length 


No. 


(ins. ) 


9 


42 


1 


42 


2 


43 


10 


45 


8 


43 


7 


43 


11 


49 


6 


51 


5 


51 


3 


55 


4 


57 



Collector - F. Racicot 
Date - August, 1952. 



Dressed 




Age (Years) 


Weight 




From Pectoral 


(lbs.) 


Sex 


Fin Ray 


11.0 


6 


24 


12.0 


2 


24 


13.0 


6 


27 


15.0 


<3 


34 


17.0 


<S 


36 


21.0 


2 


40 


20.0 


6 


40 


19.0 


2 


40 


24.0 


2 


41 


24.5 


2 


45 


27.0 


<S 


50 



- 47 - 
Locality - Lower Moose River, James Bay. 



Collector - F. Racicot 
Date - Summer, 1953- 















Age (Years) From) 


Field 


No. 


Len 


gth (ins.) 


Weight (lbs.) 


Sex 


Pectoral Fin Ray 


12 






34.0 


14.0 


M 


24 


17 






40.0 


15.0 


- 


26 


3 






44.0 


22.0 


- 


33 


1 






44.0 


13.0 


- 


34 


6 






45.0 


17.0 


- 


43 


13 






45.0 


23.0 


9 


36 


14 






45.0 


21.0 


- 


36 


7 






46.0 


27.0 


- 


37 


16 






47.0 


26.0 


- 


35 


11 






43.0 


30.0 


- 


37 


4 






49.0 


27.0 


- 


34 


5 






50.0 


33.0 


- 


40 


2 






51.0 


35.0 


- 


41 


19 






52.0 


35.0 


- 


41 


3 






54.0 


25.0 


- 


41 


9 






56.0 


37.0 


M 


40 


15 






57.0 


43.0 


- 


51 


13 






57.0 


33.0 


- 


52 


10 


ty - 


Lake 


59.0 

of the Wood 


49.5 


ct. 


52 


Locali 


s, Kenora Distri 





31.0 



215.0 



Collector - Harold Johnson 

Kenora 
Date - July 15, 1953. 

152 



Locality - Ottawa River. 



Collector - V. George 
Date - Summer, 1954. 



Number 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



Fork Length* 
(ins.) 

33.5 

36.0 
41.0 
45.0 
61.0 



Weight 

(Round) 

(lbs.) 


Weight 

(Dressed) 

(lbs.) 


11.5 
15.5 
19.5 
26.5 
93.0 


7.5 
11.2 

13.5 
13.0 
57.0 



Age (Years) From 
Pectoral Fin Ray 

16 
13 
21 
50 
65 



K Length (from nose tip to apex of tail V) • 



- 43 - 

Locality - Chats Lake, Ottawa River, Pembroke District. 

Collector - K. K. Irizawa 
Date - Sept. 20-29, 1955. 

Length Weight Weight 
Length* Live Dressed Round Dressed Age from 
No . or Round (ins . ) (ins. ) ( lbs. ) (lbs. ) Pectoral Fin 



1 


23.0 


21.0 


13.0 


3.0 


20 


2 


23.0 


- 


- 


- 


33 


3 


23.5 


. 21.0 


13.0 


7.2 


32 


4 


24.5 


22 


14.0 


9.0 


33 


5 


25.0 


- 


- 


- 


34 


6 


29.0 


26.5 


20.5 


12*0 


50 


7 


27.0 


- 


- 


- 


46 


g 


30.5 


- 


- 


- 


56 


9 


31.0 


- 


- 


- 


52 


10 


36.5 


- 


- 


- 


74 



x New Measurements - (See 1955 Game and Fisheries Act) 
measured from the most posterior limit of the gill 
opening to the point where the posterior edge of the 
dorsal fin joins the flesh of the body* 



Locality - Ottawa River, Horton Township, Renfrew County. 

Collector - J. G. Stewart 
Date - August 27, 1956. 

Age (Years) From 
Number Total Length (ins.) Weight (lbs.) Pectoral Fin Ray 

1 71.0 100.0 74 



Locality - Springer Township, Lake Nipissing, North Bay District, 

Collector - T. C. Cusson 
Date - May 20, 1955. 
Weight Weight 
Fork Length Round Dressed Age (Years) From 
No. (ins.) iiks&l ( lbs.) Sex Pectoral Fin Ray 

1 32.0 143.O 96.0 <s 76 



Locality - Lake Simcoe, Lake Simcoe District 

Collector - Bud Ellis 

Sutton, Ont. 

Date - Jan. 29, 1956. 

1 42.0 - 9 



• ; . 



. " 






- 49 - 

A REPORT OF COARSE FISH REMOVAL AT 
SPRING VALLEY MILL POND, WATERLOO COUNTY* 

by 

J. F. Gage 



Introduction 

Spring Valley Mill Pond is situated in the Township of 
Wilmot in Waterloo County, on the headwaters of Alder Creek in the 
Grand River Watershed. 

The dam which impounds the water was constructed in 1$35 
and the mill was used as a saw and feed mill. It was converted 
later to a furniture factory, then finally as a saw, feed and cider 
mill. It was used as recently as 1955 for making cider. 

The fishing rights are held by the Hobo Trout Club, a 
group of business men from Kitchener and Waterloo, who inquired 
about some efficient means of removing coarse fish. The pond and 
stream has always supported a population of speckled trout, Some 
years ago carp escaped from a farmer's pond near the headwaters and 
found their way into the pond. Common 3uckers, Creek Chub, Sculpins, 
Blacknose Dace and Darters were also present in the pond. 

Several attempts by the Club to remove the coarse fish 
were made with little success. These included the use of copper 
sulphate, dynamite, seining and draining the pond, over a ten year 
period. 

From the time of their original entry into the pond the 
carp had reproduced and their numbers became objectionable from a 
management viewpoint. 

The club agreed to finance a poisoning project and provide 
all the labour. The Department of Lands and Forests gave permission 
to the Club to use poison providing that the project was supervised 
by the District Biologist. 

The following is a report on this projects 



x Several photographs showing Carp which had been removed from the 
Pond accompanied this report. 



- 50 - 



Poisoning Project - Spring Valley Mill Pond 



Names 
Locations 

Date of Applications 

Organizations 

Areas 

Average Depths 

Maximum Depths 

Acre Feet 5 

Capacitys 

Volume of Stream Flows 

Temperatures 

pHs 

Condition of Waters 

Type of Bottoms 

Aquatic Growths 

Name of Toxicants 

Amount of Toxicant Useds 
Concentration of Toxicants 
Species Killeds 



Total poundage killeds 



Spring Valley Mill Pond. 

Lot 13, Concession II, Township of 

Wilraot, County of Waterloo. 

October 21st, 1956. 

Hobo Trout Club, Kitchener, Ontario. 

2.5 acres. 

5 feet. 

9 feet. 

13.5 

3,672,000 imperial gallons, 

1,700 gallons per minute. 

50°Fi 

7.4 

Clear 

Muck - silt. 

Chara. 

Noxfish - 5% Rotenone, S. B. Penick Co., 

New York. 

5 pints. 

2. ppm to .17 ppm. 

Carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) 

Common Sucker ( Catostomus commersonnii ) 

Creek Chub ( Semotilus atromaculatus ) 

Blacknose Da"ce ( Rhin i chthys atratulus ) 

Sculpin ( Cottus cognatus ) 

Brook Trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis ) 

Rainbow Darter [ Poecilichthys caeuruleus ) 

500 



Assistance bys Members of Hobo Trout Clubs Messrs. 



G. Barron 
E. Heller 
R. Edgerdee 
Ray Ford 
K. MacLean 



Purpose s 

To remove from the pond the carp and other coarse fish in 
order to reduce competition between these undesirable species and 
trout. 

Methods 



The pond 
average depth of fi 
fed by a stream and 
The stream headwate 
the pond. The pond 
of aquatic vegetati 
pond is clear, has 
21st, 1956, of 50OF 
to refill. Repeate 
reduced the adult c 



is approximately 2.5 acres in area, has an 

ve feet and a maximum depth of nine feet. It is 

three springs with a total volume of 1,700 g.p.m, 
rs are located approximately 1 1/4 miles above 

is heavily silted and contains a light growth 
on in the form of chara. The water feeding the 
a pH reading of 7.4 and a temperature on October 
When the pond is drained it requires 36 hours 
d drainings and postponements of the project had 
arp to an estimate of 15 large adults. 



:.;;,■ .-, f J 



- 51 - 

The capacity of the pond, 3,672,000 gallons, was calculated 
on the volume of flow and the time required to fill the pond. The 
total weight of the water in the pond when full would be 36,720,000 
pounds. 

In order to obtain a better kill in the pond permission 
was secured from the lessee and owner of the stream above the pond 
to apply the poison to the stream approximately one half mile above 
the pond site. It was felt that no carp would be found above this 
point. 

Collections and observations above the application point 
produced only speckled trout, sculpins, and a few darters. 

The poison to be used was Noxfish produced by the S, B. 
Penick Company of New York, It was procured as an emulsion with a 
5% Rotenone extract. 

The problem in this project was unique, in that we were 
dealing with a flowing stream which had to be poisoned before it 
entered the pond. The poison in the pond had to be maintained at 
a concentration sufficient to kill carp and other species. Since 
the stream below contained populations of desirable species such 
as brook trout and brown trout the concentration had to be diluted 
sufficiently to keep the downstream kill to a minimum when the pnnd 
overflowed. 

Another problem which gave us some concern, and is likely 
to be present on most old mill dams, was the fact that there was 
some leakage around the penstock valve. Although this leakage was 
not great (about 10 gallons per minute) this would present a serious 
threat when the poison began to build up to its highest concentra- 
tion. A small dam was, therefore constructed in the tail race and 
a gasoline pump capable of pumping BOO gallons per minute was set 
up ready for use. 

In previous correspondence with the S. B. Penick Company 
in connection with the dilution required to render the water harmless 
they calculated that at .2 ppm we could expect a very limited kill 
of trout in the water downstream. They also were very helpful in 
making calculations to determine the lethal concentration and the 
time which the carp should be exposed to this concentration in order 
to obtain a satisfactory kill. A last minute survey of the stream 
flow indicated a considerable change in previous calculations so 
that adjustments were necessary. The figures provided by S. B. 
Penick and Company were used as a basis in considering the adjust- 
ments. 

Time was a most important factor in this project. At 
exactly 2.15 p.m. the Noxfish (1 pint in 3 gallons of water) was 
applied to the stream by use of an ordinary garden type pressure 
spray pump. The application of the Noxfish in the water was 
preceded by a worker who carried a full pail of sawdust. The saw- 
dust was thrown on the surface of the stream as a marker or warning 
of the poison which followed. 



- 52 - 

The worker walked slowly downstream adding sawdust as it 
dissipated around log jams and through rapids. It required two 
hours for the poison to reach the pond site where additional workers 
applied an additional pint of poison to three small springs feeding 
directly into the pond. This action required one hour. When the 
sawdust marker reached the dam the penstock valves were closed and 
the pond began to refill. 

The entire process of application to the main stream 
lasted from 2,15 p.m. to 5*15 p.m. A total of three hours. The 
last of the poison entered the pond at £.15 p.m. 

Results : 

Fish began to show signs of distress one half hour after 
the valve was closed. Dead speckled trout were first observed in 
the stream and a few later in the pond. These were the only dead 
trout which were actually observed in the pond. 

Small dace and sculpins were the first species to succumb, 
followed by suckers and finally the carp. Unfortunately, it grew 
quite dark by 6.15 and observations were difficult, but the surface 
of the enlarging pond was continually broken by dying fish. 

The leakage from the penstock valve was pumped out once 
every 90 minutes during the afternoon and evening. 

The following morning the pond was found to have enlarged 
considerably. The bottom revealed an estimated 25 dead fish per 
100 square feet. A total of twelve adult carp were recovered. 
Another fifty young individuals ranging from one to five inches in 
length were observed on the bottom. The total weight of dead fish 
in the pond was estimated at 500 pounds. The dead fish remained 
on the bottom as was our experience at Harrington Pond (June 19th, 
1956) , the water level rising constantly over them where they died 
on what was previously shallow shoreline. Four days later some of 
the fish began to bloat and come to the surface. 

The pond was completely full in 36 hours and began to 
overflow at 4*15 a.m. on October 23rd. The concentration of poison 
was .17 ppm at this time. At £.00 a.m. on the same day the stream 
below the mill dam was examined for one and one half miles. A 
small number of speckled trout (25) and (5) brown trout were found 
dead or dying. A few dead sculpins and suckers were also observed. 
Most of the dead fish were found within a few hundred yards of the 
dam. Most of those which were found further downstream still 
exhibited some signs of life. 

Summary ; 

(1) Observations on the pond following the project indicate a 

complete kill in the pond. Re-establishment of sculpins and 
darters and possibly suckers may occur from the headwaters but 
it is considered unlikely. It is predicted that carp have been 
completely removed. 



- 53 - 



(2) The kill of trout below the dam is probably due to the leakage 
around the penstocks, unfortunately the leakage was not 
pumped out during the night hours. 

The kill was so small considering the number of fish present 
downstream that it may be assumed that a dilution to .17 ppm 
was not lethal under these conditions. 

(3) The small number of trout killed in the downstream side may 
be easily replaced with hatchery stock. 

(4) The project was considered to be a success by the Trout Club 
and by the biologist supervising the project. Trout will be 
re-introduced to the pond at the rate of 125 yearlings per 
acre which is designed to provide maximum growth and satis- 
factory angling success for the pressure which will be 
exerted.